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Asia Pacific Career Dev Assoc
October 2018
Natalie Kauffman, Editor
IN THIS ISSUE
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by Carla S. Siojo

I am honored to begin my year as President of the Asia Pacific Career Development Association (APCDA). It is a great privilege to follow in the footsteps of our past presidents that helped shape our association -- Soonhoon Ahn (Founding President), Hsiu-Lan (Shelley) Tien, Cheri Butler, Narender N. K. Chadha and recent past president, Brian Hutchison. I am extremely grateful and fortunate to be working with our committed Board of Directors, Country/Area Directors, Committee Directors, Committee Members, and our incredibly dynamic staff, led by Executive Director, Marilyn Maze, and ably supported by Administrator, Emily Lizada. However, I am most excited to be working for and providing services to you, our APCDA members.

The last two (2) months have been action-packed! Here are the highlights:

  • Our Bylaws & Policies Committee is finalizing the implementation of governance restructuring. The new three-part governance model will provide multiple ways to engage you, our members. The new model will also help us better meet the needs of our growing association. Please contact Bylaws@AsiaPacificCDA.org if you are willing to help with this important project.
  • The Program Committee has worked hard to line up a great slate of webinars from September through December, and is now working on webinars for 2019. (See below for details.)
  • Close coordination with Minh Chau Nguyen, Vietnam Country/Regional Director, is ongoing to ensure smooth and problem-free arrangements for our upcoming, Annual 2019 Conference. (See tour descriptions below.) The Conference will be held at RMIT University, in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam from May 21-25 with the exciting theme, Navigating Career Development in the Age of Industry 4.0. Do submit your presentation proposal(s) by November 30. For more details: http://asiapacificcda.org/2019_Conference
  • The Public Relations Committee has implemented a new WeChat group. Please contact PublicRelations@AsiaPacificCDA.org to join the WeChat group.
  • The Membership Committee helps new members to feel welcome, but needs more members to accomplish this big task. This is a great opportunity to build your skills and meet people in other countries via telecom. Please contact Membership@AsiaPacificCDA.org if you can help.
  • The Glossary Project Workforce is looking for people to help with translating the APCDA Glossary of Terms to Korean, Chinese, and Japanese. Please contact Glossary@AsiaPacificCDA.org if you can help.
  • A new scholarship has been established, called the Martha Russell Scholarship to honor the memory of Martha Russell, a founding member whom we hold dear for her contributions during APCDA's formative years. (See below for details.)
  • The Board will re-visit our APCDA Vision/Mission during its October meeting.
  • Beginning with this issue, our newsletter is incorporating themes. This month's articles feature Career Development Challenges & Successes with Immigrants.

The strength of APCDA is our dedicated membership composed of passionate career development practitioners, educators and researchers from diverse backgrounds and multiple countries. To continue our success, it is important that APCDA continues to engage membership to participate, be pro-active, and build new partnerships.

"The great aim of education is not knowledge but ACTION." (Herbert Spencer)

I urge each and every one of you to be more active and become involved in APCDA! Attend our conferences and webinars. Share your knowledge and expertise with each other. Join a committee. Reach out to non-members and encourage them to join. Let us synergize our efforts and encourage each other to have a voice in APCDA. Thank you very much for your trust and support! I look forward to working with and for you as you continue to apply and develop your knowledge, skills and abilities through your active participation in APCDA!

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New Martha Russell Student Scholarship

A student scholarship to honor our first Bylaws Director, Martha Russell, has been established by her husband, Harry Russell. This scholarship will pay all expenses to attend our APCDA Conference for one person in 2019. This new Martha Russell Student Scholarship is available only to graduate students who do not live in High Income Countries.

In addition to the new Martha Russell Student Scholarship, we will continue to offer three (3) Emerging Leader Scholarships, which cover the cost of registration for graduate students or recent graduates from any country. Beginning October 15, a new application form can be accessed to apply to either or both scholarship opportunities. Visit our Scholarship page for more details.

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Improving Career Outcomes for Migrants Seeking Work in Australia
by Laurie Nowell

Australia is one of the world's most diverse nations with half of the population either having been born overseas or having at least one of their parents born overseas. It is also a nation whose economic prosperity is based in migration. Last year, more than 200,000 migrants entered the country helping to boost its population to the current level of 25 million. Despite the economic imperatives and the wide social acceptance of migration and multiculturalism, newly arrived, professionally qualified migrants to Australia can face considerable challenges in finding work in their field. Employment plays a critical role in the process of resettlement for migrants. The economic, social and health benefits have been long demonstrated.

Employment is an essential step for newcomers to Australia in order to settle successfully with the same economic, social and health benefits employment accords to all other Australians. New migrants can find themselves in a vulnerable position as new entrants into a new and unfamiliar labor market. Difficulties can include a lack of knowledge about the labor market and recruitment practices, not using the language recognized by Australian employers, limited access to professional networks and a lack of knowledge of local workplace culture.

Overall the employment rate for skilled migrants is comparable with the Australian average but there are important differences in employment outcomes for different groups within Australia's Skilled Migration Program. Skilled migrants who are sponsored directly by employers go straight into a job on arrival and are unlikely to experience unemployment. Those from English speaking regions who generally have strong language and cultural ties to Australia also are more likely to find work in a skilled job relatively quickly.

In contrast, skilled migrants from non-English speaking backgrounds can find that the culture and language gap, which also influences employer perceptions, can make finding professional work more challenging. For some people there may be barriers in relation to English language used in the workplace, specifically, and there is also the possibility of discrimination when looking for a job.

Migrant and refugee settlement agency, AMES Australia, https://www.ames.net.au/, delivers a series of programs and services designed to support newly arrived migrants and refugees to re-establish their careers in Australia and reach their goals in terms of economic and social participation. The organization regards employment as an essential cornerstone in the process of successful settlement for most new migrants. It has created a range of innovative programs to assist people arriving in Australia to find good quality work.

One of these innovative programs is the Working the Australian Way (WTAW) Program in which corporate partners work closely with AMES to develop a practical agenda to support participants in their search for work. WTAW workshops gives participants an opportunity to meet with senior executives from high profile Australian companies. Program participants get advice about professional interviews as well as insights into Australian workplace cultures. The workshop is interactive with an emphasis on practicing interviewing and starting up new professional networks. It is also provides participants with the opportunity to meet with other people in a similar situation and share resources and experiences.

An independent evaluation of the WTAW Program found that 73% of participants started a new job after the workshop, almost all within three months. Two thirds of the participants secured a job that fully or partially matched their professional backgrounds. Seventy-four per cent of the WTAW Program participants shared that the workshops were useful for their job search in Australia. Additionally, most participants said the workshop gave them new confidence as well as strategies and networks for finding professional work in Australia.

According to the same independent evaluation, the WTAW Program also delivered positive outcomes to corporate partners; enabling participating companies and organizations to demonstrate leadership and make a positive social contribution.

The Skilled Professional Migrant Program (SPMP) is another program delivered by AMES Australia. It is an intensive course, run over four weeks, offering an opportunity for skilled migrants in Australia to learn about the local labor market and fine-tune their skills with the support of a mentor from the same professional background. The SPMP assists migrants with professional qualifications to develop job search skills in Australia. These skills include the preparation of résumés and job applications, interview skills and networking as well as workplace culture and law.

Overall, the SPMP aims to provide a bridge across the cultural divide facing some migrants relaunching their careers in Australia. An evaluation of the mentoring aspect of the program found that all of the 239 participants surveyed shared that their personal and professional development skills were significantly improved through guidance from their mentor. An overall evaluation of the program found that 72% of participants said that their employment after the SPMP was a good or partial match with their overseas background and more than 80% rated the usefulness of the SPMP as very high. SPMP evaluation results concluded that information and advice provided at the right time can enable people to shift into work that more closely matches their qualifications and overseas experience.

More on AMES Australia

A common research theme into migrant employment outcomes is that early and intensive support and intervention can have a significant positive effect in improving outcomes for newly arrived migrants and refugees seeking work in Australia. AMES Australia is the largest provider of services for migrants, refugees and asylum seekers in Australia. Services provided by AMES Australia include a comprehensive range of refugee settlement, English language tuition, vocational training and employment programs in NSW, Victoria, and Tasmania. More than 40,000 people accessed AMES programs in 2017. The organization views employment as an essential cornerstone in the process of successful settlement for most new migrants. Most of AMES Australia's programs are geared in some way to produce positive employment outcomes for clients.

Links to research papers

https://www.ames.net.au/-/media/files/research/ames_spmpresearchreport_lr.pdf?la=en

https://www.ames.net.au/-/media/files/research/15477_ames_summary_reportlowres.pdf?la=en

Link to the Skilled Professional Migrant Program web page: https://www.ames.net.au/courses/skilled-professional-migrants-program-spmp

Laurie Nowell has been a journalist and writer for 25 years working for publications in Australia and the United Kingdom (UK). His work has appeared in The Age, The Herald Sun and The Australian in Australia and The Times and The Guardian in the UK. Recently, he has been working in Public affairs with AMES Australia while also writing about the migrant and refugee sector and working with migrant communities to help them engage with mainstream media.

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Working with Immigrants - A Personal Australian Perspective
by Agnes Banyasz

Over the past 30 years I've had the good fortune of working with immigrants in Melbourne, Australia in a range of settings. In this article, I will attempt to distill and share the key learnings from my experience and also feature the government-funded structures available for new migrants as we call immigrants here 'down under'.

My experience

In the 80s, I was in the first team of 'bilingual information instructors' selected and trained to work with newly arrived migrants living mostly in government built and funded hostels or out in the community. There were many Vietnamese, Cambodian, Laotian refugees, people from Poland, the Soviet Union, various Latin American countries, all living together in these hostels, receiving free housing, English language classes, childcare, health checks and regular sessions with bilingual instructors. Instruction delved deeply into a list of key survival and life skills topics considered necessary for successful settlement and transitioning into their new life in Australia, e.g. Banking, Education, Health, Housing, Transport, Tax, Insurance, Social Security, Law, Government, Employment, etc.

While career-related questions and concerns were always on newly arrived migrants' minds, true to Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, they usually came up in class sessions after participants felt somewhat confident about having a basic grip on their new everyday reality. New migrants wanted a job, so they could move out of the hostel and look after themselves and their family's needs even at the cost of serious career disruption, dislocation and often discontinuation. Tram or taxi drivers with doctoral degrees, university-qualified factory workers became common again, same as after the post-World War II migration wave.

During the 90s, I worked mostly with professionally qualified migrants enrolled in government-funded courses that had career building and workplace skills components in addition to English language training. Many course participants were highly qualified people from Yugoslavia, Somalia, Iran, etc. who were very keen to re-establish their career as soon as possible. There was no more time to waste, and we needed to work in leaps and bounds here, which was a big challenge for all.

The noughties found me working mostly with international students who wanted to stay in Australia and become permanent residents after the completion of their studies, as well as with highly qualified and skilled migrants who were attracted to our sunny shores and arrived here under the 'skilled migration' program. The investment into this life adventure is usually big, stakes are often high and career decisions need to be aligned with these, presenting another challenge for practitioner and clients alike.

I learned from working with migrants that . . .

they are an incredibly diverse and varied group made up of refugees, business migrants, professionally qualified individuals and families, adventure seekers, digital nomads, etc.

to be successful with the career/life planning and strategy, I have to identify and be able to meet each client at the specific crossroad they are at and move ahead from there, taking into consideration:

  • initial adjustment needs and processes
  • capacity for dealing with culture shock
  • possible financial difficulties
  • commitments and responsibilities to nuclear and extended family
  • coping skills for unmet expectations & disappointments
  • social isolation & loss of previous support networks

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Supporting the Career Engagement of Recent Immigrants
by Roberta Neault & Cassie Taylor

The Career Engagement model can be a helpful tool for Career Development Practitioners (CDPs) conceptualizing the immigrant experience. In Canada, skilled newcomers routinely experience less than optimal employment outcomes facing challenges related to lack of local experience and foreign credential recognition (Government of Canada, 2015). In addition, inadequate pre-arrival information, employer bias, and regional skills mismatch are also common issues. In this context, individuals may concurrently feel overwhelmed (e.g., navigating settlement challenges, learning a new language) and underutilized (e.g., taking a "survival job," being unable to find employment that is similar to pre-immigration). The Career Engagement model (Neault, 2014; Neault, & Pickerell, 2011, in press) provides an interesting framework for understanding the delicate balance between challenge and capacity. Too much challenge for available capacity can result in feeling overwhelmed; too little challenge for available capacity can result in feeling underutilized. Left unchecked, both states leave an individual at risk for disengagement. When in balance, individuals can thrive in a "zone of engagement."

For the "overwhelmed" client, CDPs might recommend building capacity (e.g., through accessing settlement services or taking a course) or lowering challenge (e.g., shifting responsibilities at work or actively seeking out mentoring or supervision). For the "underutilized," CDPs might recommend increasing challenge by taking on a new position or special project or engaging in part-time studies; another option would be to reduce capacity by tightening timelines or offering to complete a project at work with a smaller team. The latter fits under the category of "gamification" - turning work into a game can make it more engaging. Alternatively, while underutilized at work, a recent immigrant could boost overall engagement by using the time to explore the new area, build a local network, and learn about the regional and corporate cultures; all of these would result in challenge in the short-term but would lead to greater capacity in the long term.

It's really important to "unpack" an apparent lack of engagement to better understand the source(s) of the problem. For example, if a CDP were to only focus on a new immigrant's experience of being overwhelmed by settlement issues, a typical recommendation might be to take on a less challenging job in the interim, with a goal of not contributing further to the client's overwhelmed feelings. However, for many skilled, internationally-trained professionals, not succeeding in achieving their pre-immigration level of employment can be highly discouraging and is likely to result in them feeling concurrently underutilized at work, despite being overwhelmed personally. Similarly, recommending a lengthy, expensive credential recognition process to requalify for that pre-immigration job level might be too overwhelming for someone who still can't find affordable, stable housing for their family.

The Career Engagement model can serve as a starting point when working with clients to better understand what's working and what's not with challenge and capacity. The traffic light colours of the model (green for engagement, red for disengagement, and shades of yellow and orange in between on both the overwhelmed and underutilized sides) can serve as early warning indicators for clients to begin to more effectively self-manage their careers. When working with any clients' experiences of less-than-optimal engagement and feelings of being overwhelmed or underutilized, CDPs may encounter issues that are beyond their scope of practice and competency. In such cases, CDPs should "arrange for appropriate consultations and referrals based on the best interests of their clients" (Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners, 2004, p. 2). It can be very helpful to build a network of other service providers in your communities, settlement workers, trainers, employer groups, trade unions, and professional associations to facilitate a coordinated multi-disciplinary approach to achieving and sustaining engagement.

To learn more about the Career Engagement model, join co-developer of the model, Dr. Roberta Neault, at the APCDA webinar on November 5/6 (click here http://asiapacificcda.org/Webinars and scroll down the page for more information and the specific time for your region)

References

Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development Practitioners (2004). Code of ethics. Retrieved from http://career-dev-guidelines.org/career_dev/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Doc-10-CODE-OF-ETHICS1.pdf

Government of Canada (2015). Survival to success: Transforming immigrant outcomes. Retrieved from https://www.canada.ca/en/employment-social-development/programs/foreign-credential-recognition/consultations.html

Neault, R. A. (2014). Theoretical foundations of career development (pp. 129-152). In B. C. Shepard, & P. S. Mani (Eds.), Career development practice in Canada: Perspectives, principles, and professionalism. Toronto, ON: CERIC.

Neault, R. A., & Pickerell, D. A. (in press). Career engagement: A conceptual model for aligning challenge and capacity. In N. Arthur, R. Neault, & M. McMahon (Eds.) Career theories and models at work: Ideas for practice. Toronto, ON: CERIC.

Neault, R. A., & Pickerell, D. A. (2011). Career engagement: Bridging career counseling and employee engagement. Journal of Employment Counseling, 48(4), 185-188.

Cassie Taylor, Manager of Life Strategies Ltd., has supported the development of the Career Engagement model through research projects and the design/development of support materials (e.g., workbooks, tips sheets, articles) and training for career development practitioners.

Dr. Roberta Neault, President of Life Strategies Ltd., is co-developer of the career engagement model and an award-winning career development thought leader in Canada and internationally. She speaks, consults, and writes extensively on career-related topics.

Life Strategies Ltd. was honored to receive the 2017 APCDA Award for Outstanding Educator of Career Professionals.

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Career Support for Immigrants in Japan
by Nika Ohashi

"Career Service for Everyone!"

Global collaboration is a key to support successful career dreams for everyone.

International Organization of Migration (IOM) defines a migrant as any person who is moving or has moved across an international border or within a State away from his/her habitual place of residence, regardless of (1) the person's legal status; (2) whether the movement is voluntary or involuntary; (3) what the causes for the movement are; or (4) what the length of the stay is. http://www.iom.int/who-is-a-migrant

1. Facts in Japan

Japan has faced low birth and a high aging rate which resulted in a serious population decrease and low labor productivity. The birth fertility rate in 2017 was 1.42%. The average life span for males is 80.98 and females is 87.14 years old. The population in 2065 is predicted to be 88,080,000 and the population of productive aged individuals (15 to 64 years of age) would be 45,290,000.

Current Japanese economy is described as deflation and saving money is one of the most common interests among citizens. Even in this kind of economic environment, data classifies the economy as booming due to the August 2018 effective job openings ratio as 2.25 and unemployment rate of 2.4%. Finding or changing jobs is easy. However, many corporations are experiencing hiring difficulties. Last year, 28,142 went out of business and 317 bankrupted due to issues related to lack of personnel. To solve these labor-related matters, the Japanese government has decided to accept more workers from abroad, as well as to promote additional action plans for young people, women and the elderly, and to develop AI and other technologies.

Public policies, such as "The Japan Plan for Dynamic Engagement for All Citizens" and "Work Style Reforms," increased the 1,278,670 foreign workers in 2017 up 18.0% and allowed international students to work up to 28 hours a week with permission. Additionally, the Japanese government has a plan to increase the number of students to 300,000 and encourage a 50% increase in employment following graduation. The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) report, released in 2015, also shows government solutions are working. The number of inflows to Japan has increased by approximately 55,000 from the previous year to approximately 390,000; slotting Japan in 4th place among 35 other countries who are increasing foreign workers.

However, another report, "Attractiveness of Working Country," slots Japan in 52nd place out of 61 countries researched. Additionally, the Migration Integration Policy Index (MIPEX) slots Japan in 27th place out of 38 countries. One of MIPEX's evaluation categories, "Labor Market," showed that Japan lacked a comprehensive policy for immigrants to participate in vocational training and prevent unemployment. Another, the MIPEX "Education" category, showed insufficiency of policy for parents of immigrants.

Japan's rapid "Multicultural Society" increase is clearly experiencing the growing pains of irregular employment, economic and social disparity and poverty. Further research and study of the inflow of foreign workers is required. Japanese career consultants also need to enhance their knowledge of serving this exploding population.

2. Career Services for Immigrants

Currently, Japanese public sector support for individuals and corporations before and after the hiring of foreign workers includes about 544 "Hello Work" centers spread in local areas and about 4 "Employment Service for Foreigners" centers in bigger cities. Support from these centers includes personal career consulting, job search, and variety of technical training courses. Even though the services are available to youth through seniors, many immigrants lack knowledge of them and/or are unable to access them easily. Furthermore, center service providers lack the specialized knowledge required to serve the diverse needs of foreign workers.

With the recent increase of social issues such as irregular employment, economic and social disparity, and poverty, the Japanese government has discussed "career upgrading" and "career change." It is important to re-establish appropriate career education curriculum and services for all people, including immigrants. Life is thought to be 100 years or more, and we all need to acquire necessary knowledge and skills from an early age.

3. Primary Research: Life and Work of Foreign Workers

A questionnaire form (44 questions in Japanese) survey instrument, originally used in 1994's "Life and Opinion," concerning life and work environment by International Volunteer PolePole, was administered to subjects generated with support from current members of PolePole's Japanese School and Ohashi's personal contacts. After an explanation of the survey instrument's purpose and method, the subjects completed the questionnaire form and turned it in for collection on site. This survey was established as a preliminary survey for the next year. Effective response was received from eleven (11) subjects. Seven (7) were males and four (4) were females. Their average age was 26. Their length of stay in Japan varied widely, from less than 3 months to more than 37 months. Their most common Visa status was "Technical Intern Training Program."

Despite subjects reporting high motivatition to learn Japanese, they consistently reported almost no opportunities to communicate with Japanese, whether inside the workplace or outside in the community at large. More than half answered they have problems and troubles in their life and work place. One subject, a third generation Japanese from Brazil, showed different characteristics. For example, his high Japanese language skill was developed across his longer stay in Japan. He also held a different type of Visa. Plans for future use of the survey instrument are in the works including improvements to the questionnaire form as well as in the method of use. Further collaboration with public sectors, corporations and other organizations also is planned.

4. Future for Career Consultants

Japan's Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare has set a goal to increase the number of Certified Career Consultants, Japanese national license, from 37,000 to 100,000 by 2024. Last June, Prime Minister of Japan and his Cabinet have decided to create new qualifications in five areas of particularly serious labor shortage in order to accept 500,000 more by 2025, and under Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA). Nurses and elderly care workers from Indonesia, Philippines, and Vietnam will be tapped to further increase the numbers. As career consultants, we need to prepare for the future with long and wider perspectives: 1. Additional research and case studies are needed and should be shared continuously in global settings. 2. Seamless career education and service should be established by Certified Career Consultants and governmental offices. 3. Collaboration with career support professionals around the globe should be continued and fostered through availability of professional development dollars.

Author's Note: The grass-roots movement for empowerment and advocacy for immigrants and minorities takes time. We all need to cooperate by moving one step further. The sustainable development of the world is at stake!

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Career Planning for Immigrant Students: A way forward with integrated wellness
by Vijay Keshaorao Paralkar

The application of Self-Determination Theory (SDT) of human motivation, development, and wellness coupled with identifying occupational needs is important in career planning for immigrant students in order to fulfill their intrinsic aspirations and achieve larger career goals of health and wellness. Identification of cultural factors is another important requirement that should be considered when helping immigrant students find employment. The language and cultural barriers of immigrant students result in unique wellness issues and needs compared to their domestic peers. Lee, Koeske, and Sales (2004) found that immigrant students experience 'acculturative stress' or stress resulting from the strain of educational and social adaptation. Berney, et al. (2003) summarized the challenges of immigrant students' wellness that includes adjusting to a new cultural and academic environment, financial constraints, lack of English language skills, and the pressure of expectations from self and others. In their study on the wellness perceptions of immigrant students, Henning, Krägeloh, Moir, Doherty, and Hawken (2012) found that these students are likely to experience greater stress and are less satisfied with having access to information relevant to their day-to-day living and access to health and wellness services when compared with the perceptions of domestic students (p. 137). Considering such unique wellness issues and needs of immigrant students, campus career counseling and development centers can appropriately serve immigrant students for sustainable and satisfactory career planning by understanding and addressing how these students perceive and behave in terms of their wellness.

Empirically based SDT of human motivation, development, and wellness focuses on types, rather than just amount of motivation, paying particular attention to autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation as predictors of performance, relational, and wellness outcomes. Abundance of research has now confirmed that the type or quality of a person's motivation is more important than the total amount of motivation for predicting many important outcomes such as, psychological health and wellness (Deci & Ryan, 2008).

Considerable empirical work within the SDT tradition has focused on the long-term goals that people use to guide their career activities. Empirically, these goals fall into two general categories that have been labeled intrinsic aspirations and extrinsic aspirations (Kasser & Ryan, 1996). Intrinsic aspirations include life goals such as affiliation, generativity, and personal development, whereas extrinsic aspirations include wealth, fame, and attractiveness. Numerous studies have revealed that an emphasis on intrinsic goals, relative to extrinsic goals, is associated with greater health, well-being, and performance (Vansteenkiste, Simons, Lens, Sheldon, & Deci, 2004). While discussing application of SDT in career planning, Miquelon & Vallerand (2008) proposed an integrative model on the motivational determinants and health and wellness consequences. This model posits that pursuing autonomous goals enhances wellness, whereas pursuing controlled goals thwarts wellness. This model also posits that self-realization leads to reduced stress.

References

Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Self-determination theory: A macrotheory of human motivation, development, and health. Canadian psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 49(3), 182.

Henning, M. A., Krägeloh, C., Moir, F., Doherty, I., & Hawken, S. J. (2012). Quality of life: international and domestic students studying medicine in New Zealand. Perspectives on medical education, 1(3), 129-142.

Kasser, T., & Ryan, R. M. (1996). Further examining the American dream: Differential correlates of intrinsic and extrinsic goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 80-87.

Lee, J. S., Koeske, G. F., & Sales, E. (2004). Social support buffering of acculturative stress: A study of mental health symptoms among Korean international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 28(5), 399-414.

Miquelon, P., & Vallerand, R. J. (2008). Goal motives, well-being, and physical health: An integrative model. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie canadienne, 49(3), 241.

Vansteenkiste, M., Simons, J., Lens, W., Sheldon, K. M., & Deci, E. L. (2004). Motivating learning, performance, and persistence: The synergistic effects of intrinsic goal contents and autonomy-supportive contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 246 - 260.

Vijay Paralkar is a PhD candidate in educational leadership and a graduate assistant with the Institute for Community Justice and Wellbeing at Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, USA. He is currently investigating factors affecting wellness in international students for his PhD dissertation work. His interest in teaching, research, and counseling practice focusses on the holistic wellness for shaping careers and lives of international students and global community. Before coming to the USA, Vijay worked in India as a Career Counselor and Facilitator for International Higher Education, where he served graduate students and mid-career professionals at several universities, colleges, and educational non-profits for 10 years. In 2014, Vijay graduated from University of Nebraska at Omaha, where he received a MS Counseling degree in student affairs with a higher education concentration. After graduation, Vijay worked as a Career Navigator at Metropolitan Community College in Omaha.

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Philippine Economic Growth through Overseas Migration & Remittances: A look at an immigrant labor force from the home country perspective
by Fernando T. Aldaba, Ph.D.

Official statistics show that remittances from Overseas Filipino Workers (OFW) reached an all time high of US$ 31.29 billion in 2017. Many economists agree that these large transfers which continually surpassed Official Development Assistance (ODA) and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) inflows have actually fuelled Philippine economic growth for the last two decades. Remittances have also catalyzed the development of sectors that currently contribute the most to the country's domestic output. These include food manufacturing, retail and wholesale trade, real estate and renting, transport and communication, and private construction. And of course, these flows have made consumption expenditure stable over the last several years. Finally, remittances have become an automatic stabilizer to the macroeconomy, increasing in volume during crisis situations.

While the growth rate of remittances has plateaued to around 4-5% in the last few years, these transfers will still be a sustainable source of domestic demand in the next decade. Skilled Filipino workers and professionals will continue to explore the global labor market as long as huge wage differentials exist vis-à-vis the local labor market. With greater labor mobility being allowed within ASEAN and within other trading partners, our highly competitive workers will continue to reap higher and better returns on their human capital.

Some economists meanwhile suggest that remittances may have spawned a dependency problem at both the household and macroeconomic levels. Household members rely solely on the incomes of their OFW and lose interest in joining the labor force and finding work. Meanwhile the national government can be lulled by the bonanza of these inflows such that needed economic policy reforms may be delayed. While these arguments continue to be debated in various forums, what should be immediately done is to transform a large portion of the savings of the overseas workers into productive investments. Philippine domestic capital formation as percentage of national income has remained relatively low as compared to the original ASEAN member countries. Financial literacy must be implemented and innovative financial products introduced to harness the increased savings accumulation by these overseas workers so as to expand domestic investments. This will further help sustain the economic expansion.

And so, are remittances a boon or a bane in terms of the Philippine macroeconomy? We see it as a key source of economic growth today and in the next few years. What is good today is that the sources of economic expansion continue to be diversified. The Information Technology — Business Process Outsourcing sector also continues to accelerate. And more recently, the manufacturing and tourism sectors have also been performing well. At the same time, government must finally accept that international migration cannot be ignored in the formulation of economic policy and should devise a specific migration and development strategy. Remittances will continue to be a critical growth driver in the next few years. All said, the Philippines should be able to continue its journey to higher levels of economic growth in the next decade, being already one of the top performers in Asia.

Dr. Fernando T. Aldaba is the Dean of the School of Social Sciences and Professor of Economics at Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines. Dr. Aldaba served as President of the Philippine Economic Society and the Civil Society Resource Institute. He was also an Asia Research and Advocacy Advisor of the Catholic Institute for International Relations, a London-based NGO and the Secretary-General of a coalition of labor federations), the Lakas Manggagawa Labor Center and a coalition of development NGO networks or CODE-NGO. Dr. Aldaba obtained his Ph.D. in Economics and his M.A. in Economics from the University of the Philippines.

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2019 Conference Tours

Vietnam is a beautiful country and visitors will want to see as much of it as possible while attending the conference. We have planned four really fun tours for the 2019 Conference:

Tuesday Morning, May 21: Tour of KOTO and lunch

KOTO, which stands for Know One, Teach One, is a non-profit that empowers at-risk and disadvantaged youth by providing training, life-skills, and opportunity in the tourism and hospitality industry. This tour combines work and pleasure. See how youth are trained for jobs that will improve their future opportunities and learn about the hospitality industry, then enjoy a lunch prepared and served by the students.

Saturday, May 25

  • Morning/Afternoon Tour of Mekong Delta
    The Mekong Delta is an extensive mangrove swamp where most people travel by boat. Visit a floating market by boat. Then explore the village and visit a coconut candy factory. Finally, visit an orchard and taste fruits that are in season. Lunch will also be served at the orchard.
  • Evening AO Show and Dinner Tour
    In the Opera House (1898), see the AO Show, a rare mix of bamboo cirque, contemporary dance, acrobatics, and live music by folk instruments. Dine on Vietnamese cuisine with your friends.
  • Evening Vespa Foodie Tour
    Hop on a vespa (with a local in the driver's seat) and enjoy the nightlife in Saigon. Eat delicacies from around the country and enjoy local beverages. Great way to see and taste the real Saigon.

For details, visit the 2019 Conference page. See you in Ho Chi Minh City in May, 2019!

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Career Practitioners Conference 2018 Getting Ready for the Future of Work - New Approaches, New Insights
by Sing Chee Wong

Singapore's inaugural Career Practitioners Conference was organized by Workforce Singapore in partnership with the People and Career Development Association (Singapore) on August 27, 2018. The theme for the Conference was "Getting Ready for the Future of Work - New Approaches, New Insights," and attracted more than 300 local delegates. The delegates were comprised of career practitioners, human resource practitioners, educators, recruiters, trainers, and employers. The Guest-of-Honor at this Conference was Singapore's Minister for Manpower, Ms. Josephine Teo.

Internationally-renowned speakers who are also familiar friends of APCDA like Dr Roberta Neault and Dr Jim Bright were the speakers at the Conference, together with Mr Darryl Parrant who is South Asia Lead for Future of Work at Willis Towers Watson, Singapore. Their presentations at this Conference were "It Takes a Village… Building and Sustaining an Engaged Workforce," "Chaos Theory of Career - What is it? How do I use it? Is it useful?" and "Future of Work and its Impact on Career Development" respectively. A panel discussion comprising the three speakers, as well as Ms. Lynn Ng, Group Director, Workforce Singapore, and Ms. Wong Sing Chee, President, People and Career Development Association (Singapore) was held for the Conference delegates to ask questions and share their views on the Conference theme. Master classes were conducted by Dr Jim Bright and Dr Robert Neault on the following day to discuss their presentations in greater depth.

The Conference and master classes were very well-received by the 300+ Singaporean delegates. They were eager to know how to manage the changes taking place in Singapore and globally with respect to employment, and the role of career development in managing these changes. It was also a good opportunity to reach out to colleagues in other professions who may not work as career practitioners, but their roles are intertwined with those of career practitioners, e.g., Human Resource practitioners, employers, educators. Discussion facilitated better understanding of career development among colleagues from other professions, who, with clearer understanding of career development, may be able to work more efficaciously with career practitioners to manage the changes. And together, be more ready for the future of work in Singapore!

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Register Today for one of APCDA's upcoming Fall webinars!

Intro to Design Thinking & Positive Psychology by Julie Neill. The webinar will provide an overview of both design thinking and positive psychology, and how to apply the principles in career planning. Two influential fields that are impacting career development in the US are design thinking and positive psychology. Design thinking is a problem-solving methodology used by companies to help individuals navigate careers. It is a career planning process that can help unlock creativity by eliciting more options and resulting in concrete actions. Positive psychology focuses on strengths and has brought attention to the notion of purpose and meaningful work.

It Takes a Village: Maximizing Engagement in School, at Work, in Life by Roberta Neault. Teachers and school administrators want to facilitate student engagement. Supervisors and managers focus on employee engagement and how it contributes to productivity and retention. Individuals, across the globe, want lives that are meaningful, interesting, and manageable. The webinar will provide a conceptual framework based on the Career Engagement Model.

5 Steps to your Dream Job by Vernon Williams. This webinar will illustrate how to incorporate the benefits of faith into the practice of career development. Mr. Williams will explain 5 proven, Bible-based steps that can be taken by job seekers to achieve a job in which they can be fully engaged and perform at their highest level. These steps will help job seekers to increase confidence, reduced stress, increase productivity, and increase job satisfaction.

Here's the link to the webinar page: http://www.asiapacificcda.org/Webinars

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