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Macau Area Information

Macau Representative:
Jacinta Ho
Founder and Managing Director
JC Human Resources Consulting

November 2021 Country report

Economic Diversification

The gaming industry remains dominant in the economy of Macau. However, many and the government have addressed the danger of excessive and prolonged dependence on the gambling and tourism sector since 10 years ago.  The problems and risks associated with the economic structure of Macau have again been revealed in the face of the epidemic crisis.  

A year ago, the Chief Executive of the city has suggested the idea of fostering the impetus for the adequate and diversified development of the economy and for the construction of a more diversified industrial structure, thus providing solid foundations for sustainable and long-term development of Macau’s economy.  

Diversification includes:

  1. Scientific and Technological Research and High-end Manufacturing Industry 

  2. Traditional Chinese Medicine and Macau brand Industry

  3. Cultural Tourism, Convention and Exhibition and Commercial and Trade Industry 

  4. Modern Financial Services Industry (bond market, wealth management, and cross-border Renminbi real time gross settlement system RMB RTGS)

With these developments, more jobs are expected to be created for the citizens and the young people in the city.  However, the need of career development in these diversifications for the workforce has become utterly urgent.  The quick fix is to invite experienced and talented people from China and other parts of the world to work on the development of the industry and the training of the local workforce.

The Guangdong-Macao In-depth Cooperation Zone in Hengqin

Another problem Macau faces is the scarcity of land.  The solution for land lies in taking advantage of the opportunities on the island of Hengqin.  Hengqin is an area located in the southern part of Zhuhai city in Guangdong Province, adjacent to Macao, and is also within the scope of the regional integration plan called “The Great Bay Area.”   

In September 2021, the Guangdong-Macao In-depth Cooperation Zone in Hengqin (commonly known as the Hengqin Cooperation Zone) was made public. The governments of Macau SAR and Guangdong Province will jointly govern the 106 square kilometers of land comprising Hengqin as part of a plan to deepen cooperation in order to facilitate the economic diversification of Macau.  That piece of land is a new space for Macau residents to live and work, a new enriched showcase for implementing “One country, Two Systems” and a new highland for promoting development of the Greater Bay Area.  A lot of new policies, laws and regulations, housing projects, education and welfare facilities, etc., will be accelerated to build up the Zone.  One of the major changes is that vehicles from Macau can drive freely to that Zone.  

Other Career Development Activities in Macau

From November 2021 onwards, the Macau Greater Bay Area Human Resources Association, an association established in Macau since last year, is offering professional trainings in the areas of China employment regulations, human resources management in China, financial planning regulations in China, construction safety inspection in China, etc., to cope with these new economic developments in Macau.  They have also organized a National Hotel Management Innovation Competition among the university students in Macau and China together with the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade and the China Commercial Chamber of Commerce, and the Sustainable Business Case Study Competition.  These competitions allow students to leverage their management knowledge to design or analyse hotel innovation and sustainable proposals, thus fostering future hoteliers.  That Association has also co-organized a Career Coaching Webinar with the Macao Career Development Association in October.


China Employment Law Training Career Coaching Webinar


Hotel Management Innovation Competition Integrated Resort Sustainable Business Case Study

July 2020 Country report

  1. The Education and Youth Affairs Bureau have provided teachers' training in career education during the recent years,  including
  2. Local higher education institutions provided online supports and recruitment information to graduates under the situation of COVID-19.
  3. 3. The Labour Affairs Bureau provides occupational training and allowance to facilitate the re-employment under the situation of COVID-19.
    (Resource from

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April 2020 Country report

Macao New Chinese Youth Association, General Association of Chinese Students of Macao and Youth Educators Association of Macau released the result of a survey and advocated for deepening career education in school settings. 

This survey collected responses of questionnaires from 1338 students and 173 teachers and focus group interviews to teachers in six secondary schools. The results lead to attention and future actions as follows :

- Both quality and quantity of teachers’ training in career education should be improved;

- More professional staff and services should be directly provided to schools;

- Career education should be included in the future youth development policies.

(Resources from Macao Daily,

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Macao Career Development Association held its first activity and looks for its professional development activities for the year of 2018

by Claire Ouyang

Macao Career Development Association (MCDA), a young professional association, has been established to promote the professionalization of career planning services in Macao.

Career services have appealed to the Macao government and local non-government organizations for years. School teachers, social workers, and psychological counselors have been spontaneously providing career services and educations in various setting in the last decade. MCDA's goal is to meet the needs of professionalization. The association hopes to accomplish this goal by focusing on two kinds of activities: 1) providing training that combines established international resources and local best practice experiences and 2) facilitating exchanges among local and overseas practitioners.

On September, 23, 2017, MCDA successfully held its first professional development gathering. According to the audience feedback, this event was impressive and satisfying beginning with its key speech and continuing through the many provided interactions. The key speech was delivered by Prof. Hsiu-Lan Shelley Tien, the former president of Asia Pacific Career Development Association. Her speech covered several important topics including challenges of career education in local high schools, referrals of cases, and screening clinical trends behind career issues. A small group of 32 participants from education, industry and social welfare helped deepen the exchange process. As a result of the gathering, many attendees expressed their interests in becoming a member.

MCDA plans to provide more professional trainings and opportunities to exchange ideas in 2018 for its members and well as to local career practitioners.

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Youth Entrepreneurship in Macao

by Elvo Sou

Entrepreneurship is becoming more and more common as a career option. In Macao where gaming and tourism is the leading industry, the government has implemented various plans to encourage youth entrepreneurship so as to provide more career opportunities to young people as well as to enhance the city's economic diversification. Established in 2013, the government's Young Entrepreneurs Aid Scheme provides an interest-free loan up to MOP300,000 (approx.USD27,500) for Macao residents between the age of 21 to 44 to start their own companies. As their companies grow through the first two years, the business owners can apply for another interest-free loan up to MOP600,000 (approx. USD75,000) from the Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SME) Aid Scheme. While the financial support is laudable, the government was criticized for not providing adequate guidance and supervision to the young business owners supported by the Schemes. In 2015, the government established the Youth Entrepreneurship Incubation Center, providing a series of support services to the young entrepreneurs, including training, advising, mentoring, networking, and free co-working space, etc.

Doing business in a small economy like Macao comprises various challenges, including limited land area and resources, small domestic markets and client bases, difficulties in sourcing research and development capacity, and lack of highly skilled personnel and innovative technology (Baldacchino & Fairbairn, 2005). Therefore, it is not surprising that the majority of the subsidized applications in the Young Entrepreneurs Aid Scheme are from Retail and Food & Beverage businesses. To encourage more innovative technology, Macao is taking advantage of the nearby Hengqin Youth Entrepreneurship Valley, which opened in the China (Guangdong) Pilot Free Trade Zone in 2015. The Valley, which aims at cultivating 1,000 creative companies and generating 100 entrepreneurship stars by year 2020, is a platform that provides venture capital investment, incubator, and business services for young people from the Chinese Mainland and Macao to start their Internet Plus ventures in the Pearl River Delta.

Another fertile ground for cultivating entrepreneurs is college campuses. The Macao University of Science and Technology provides entrepreneurial education through its Centre for Entrepreneurship and Career Planning. The University of Macao offers rent-free co-op shops for students to run their businesses through the Campus Entrepreneurship Competition, and organizes the Macao Entrepreneurship Competition, where the winners can enter the final competition of the infamous One Million Dollar Entrepreneurship Competition at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. Meanwhile, various NGOs such as the Youth Committee of the Macao Chamber of Commerce, Macao Youth Entrepreneur Association, Macao New Chinese Youth Association and Macao Youth Federation are also actively involved in promoting youth entrepreneurship in Macao.

Youth entrepreneurship is certainly catching on in Macao. Various initiatives have been put in place in recent years to help young people start their businesses. Yet entrepreneurship in a small economy is likely to be different from that in a large state. It will be interesting to see the evolution and results of the entrepreneurial efforts in Macao.

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Youth Employment and Social Development in Macau

by Elvo Sou

Macau has gone through an unprecedented decade of economic growth. Human resource development has become strategically important to sustain our social development. Due to its small size and population, Macau faces a number of challenges.

Similar to other small states and territories, Macau has an ecology of its own. The economy is often characterized by limited diversification and high sensitivity to the changes in the global economy. The decrease of our gaming revenue in the past year due to the slowing economic growth and anti-corruption initiatives in China is an example. In terms of the labor market, small states and territories have the need for the similar specializations as larger ones, but usually cannot produce all these specializations or fully populate them. They usually rely on expatriates to fill the gap in the labor market. For many specialized occupations, in addition, the demand is often not large enough to employ a sizeable pool of highly trained personnel. As a result, specialists frequently find themselves handling both specialist and non-specialist duties, and employees often wear several hats at the same time. Occupational identity takes on a different definition, with the self usually comprised of a smaller "hard core" and a larger "flexible periphery"- a phenomenon known as "multi-functionality" (Sultana, 2006).

This does not mean that specialists are not needed. In fact, the expectation of professionalism is rising in Macau as our economy advances. But given the nature of smallness, the demand for certain specialists can become easily saturated, resulting in redundant talents and people who need transferrable skills to embark on other careers. In addition, specialists often need to give up their specializations and develop the skill-sets of generalists if they want to climb the career ladder (Baldacchino, 1995). Therefore, the interplay of specialization and generalization is a crucial aspect of career development in Macau. "Adaptable specialization" is recommended, which allows youth to cope with the ever-changing social development in Macau.

Career counseling and development for youth is a major focus in the recent Macau Youth Policy 2012-2020. Much effort has been paid in guiding high school students to choose their college majors, so as to help students find their best person-environment fit in their career development. While this effort is admirable, it is insufficient for several reasons. First, students usually have a limited understanding of what the college majors really entail when they make their decisions. It is not uncommon to see students find themselves uncomfortable with their chosen majors after they enter university. They may change their majors, or get through their studies but then embark on a completely different career after they graduate from college. Secondly, certain majors may not directly translate into occupations in Macau, leaving students with a diffused sense of vocational identity. Thirdly, even when the students do choose suitable majors which can turn into available occupations, their careers in the next 40 years are bound to include transitions and changes. Macau youth need to develop career adaptability.

Taken together, there are several implications for youth employment and career development in Macau.

  1. To avoid a mismatch of education endeavors with employment opportunities, Macau youth need to be informed what specializations are in what level of demand in the near future when they contemplate their future career. The data from the government's Talent Information Registration is of paramount importance for addressing this issue.
  2. Macau youth should develop a sense of adaptable specialization. While they specialize in their professions, they also need to expand their skill-sets in order to prepare for inevitable career transitions.
  3. Career development is not a one-time event of choosing a college major. Career development programs should help Macau youth cultivate career adaptability, so as to equip them with the competence to negotiate a life-time of changes.
  4. Macau youth should avoid seeing university as a place for vocational training, but the place for developing transferable skills.

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